Wednesday, June 20, 2012

Color Analysis Timeline - in progress

Consultants Map

1810 Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe Theory of Colours
1855 Michele Eugene Chevreul The Principles of Harmony and Contrast in Colors
1882 Rudolf Steiner Colour
1900s Albert Munsell Munsell Color Systems
1906 Jung met Freud
1916 Wilhelm Ostwald The Color Primer
1920s Johannes Itten Painter and Professor at Bauhaus Design Academy
1925 Belle Northrup A Short Description of Historic Fashion
1935 Belle Northrup The Story of Costume Told in Pictures
1942 Suzanne Caygill Personal Color Analysis originated
1943 Grace Margaret Morton The Arts of Costume and Personal Appearance
1940s Rober Dorr Color Key System
1952 Living with Suzanne TV Show
1959 McJimsey
1963 Josef Albers Interaction of Color
1960s Lois Marlow-Scott student of Caygill, Ten Thousand Colors
1964 Joan Songer Personal Style Counselors
1972 Fran Muntz Director of Beauty for You, New Zealand
1974 Debra Lindquist Color Profiles, Ltd.
1977 Bernice Kentner Color Me A Season
1978 John Kitchener Personal Style Counselors
1980 Suzanne Caygill Color: The Essence of You
1980 Carole Jackson Color Me Beautiful
1980s Anne Sagendorph-Moon trained in Caygill Method
1980s Carolyn Miller House of Color
1980 Jane Segerstrom Look Like Yourself and Love It
1981 Carla Mathis The Body Beautiful Insititute
1982 Pat Scott Vincent Colourflair
1983 Naomi Donner Color for Body & Soul
1985 Joan Calloway The Color Connection
1986 Joanne Nicholson and Judy Lewis-Crum Color Wonderful
1987 David Kibbe Metamorphosis
1987 Jennifer Robin Clothe Your Spirit, Growing More Beautiful
1988 Jane Segerstrom Style Strategy
1989 Rochele HC Hirsch Graduate of Caygill's Academy
~1992 Taylor B. Sinclaire IlluminEssensce
Angela Wright
Blair Massey
Color Psychology
Always Looking Your Best
1997 Robert Rohm DISC Personality
1997 Darin Wright Elea Blake
1999 Maytee Garza Reveal Consultancy
~2001 Kathryn Kalisz Sci/Art originator
2002 Kerry Stitch Sci/Art consultant
2005 Lauren Battistini Color My Closet
2005 Jenifer Butler Reinventing Your Style

Cathy Wiliams Ten Thousand Colors
2008 Christine Scaman Return to Your Natural Colors
2008 Anna Villaruel The Chic Fashionista
2009 Donna Cognac The Color Advisor
2009 Norma Virgin Color Alliance
2009 Lora Alexander Pretty Your World
2010 Carol Tuttle Dressing Your Truth
2010 David Zyla Color Your Style
2011 Wendy J. Smith All Your Winning Colors

Kathy Pfeiffer Beauty Valued

RoseAnn Woolpert Personal Color Palettes

Truth is Beauty

Ylena Starikova Seasonal Color Analysis blog

Irenee Riter The Science of Personal Dress

Donna Fujii Color With Style


Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe was a German philosopher who first published his Theory of Colours in 1810, which was later edited by Rudolf Steiner.  It was published in English in 1840 by John Murray of London.  He did not apply his theory of color to anything like seasonal color analysis; that came later.

Michel Eugene Chevreul was a French chemist.  He is said to have experimented with placing different colors next to each other, and observing the different effects upon the colors.
"Through Chevruel's research and our own experiences, we know that colors are not static. Colors are similar to people--their personalities change and they can be influenced by close associations." -- Joen Wolfrom in "The Magic Effects of Color."

Chevreul’s Law of Simultaneous Color Contrast: 
“Both small red squares are exactly the same color but the one on the left should appear more violet because the eye infuses it with the complimentary of the background orange, likewise the one on the right should gain an orange cast because of its blue background.” 

1897 Steiner

  • Rudolf Steiner was an Austrian philosopher and the founder of the Waldorf Schools and Anthropososphy.  In 1882, Steiner was asked to edit a new release of Goethe’s works.  There is a book on color by Rudolf Steiner which contains 12 lectures on the subject, entitled simply “Colour.”

  • 1900s
  • The name Munsell is probably the most known in association with color theory.  Albert Munsell was an artist and professor who established a system of understanding aspects of color and human perception of color.  He defined three aspects of color: hue, value and chroma.  Hue includes the idea of colors being cool or warm.  Value refers to the depth or lightness of colors.  And chroma relates to whether a color is pure and clear or muted in some way by the addition of other colors (white, gray and black)."

 Early History of Color Analysis

Johannes Itten was a Swiss expressionist painter and art theoretician and member of the Bauhaus design academy.  He is considered to be the source of the color analysis systems started by Suzanne Caygill and Carole Jackson.   He was the founder of the idea of four types of people with different color palettes and to refer to these types with the names of the seasons.  One purpose for this was in assisting painters in doing portraits.
Itten noticed that his art students always did their best work using colors they had chosen themselves and found a connection between what they chose and their own coloring.  If they had warm skin, they chose warm colors, and conversely, if they had cool skin, they chose cool colors. He also theorized that colors either have a blue or yellow underbased.  He was the first person to discover color palettes for people.

Josef Albers
Josef Albers was a German artist who expounded on the principles of Chevreul, along with Johannes Itten.  He published Interaction of Color in 1963, “which presented his theory that colors were governed by an internal and deceptive logic.”.  He worked both in Europe and the U.S.

Wilhelm Ostwald

Wilhelm Ostwald was a color theorist who wrote “The Color Primer.”  He was also a painter who made his own pigments.  He wrote about pleasing (or harmonious) and displeasing or neutral combinations of colors.  He commented on color influencing emotions and environment.

Carl Jung (met Freud in 1906)
"Carl Jung, a renowned psychiatrist and proponent of art therapy, encouraged his patients to use color because he felt this would help them express some of the deeper parts of their psyche. It is believed that the color choices you make reflect a deeper meaning about your personality traits. For example, introverts and extroverts are likely to choose different colors – blue and red respectively.   Man and His Symbols ,  Psychological Types (The Collected Works of... 


  • Many psychological concepts were first proposed by Jung, including the archetype, the collective unconscious, the complex, andsynchronicity. Popular psychometric instruments like the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), have been principally developed from Jung's theories.

  • Belle Northrup

    Grace Morton

    "Grace Margaret Morton was head of the textiles and clothing division at the University of Nebraska for over twenty years.  During that time, she was appreciated by her students and fellow faculty members as a person of unusual talents. A scholar of wide interests, she had a vision that placed her ahead of her time in sensing the psychological and economic implications possible in as study of clothing.
    Her expressed goal in her teaching of both undergraduates and graduates was to help students to recognize and value beauty, to strivee to bring it into their surroundings, and to achieve real creative satisfaction in their use of color, line and texture in their study of clothing.
    A tall and striking figure, Grace Morton evidenced her creative abilities in her own manner of dress and in her beautiful home.  Both showed the distinction and elegance which were a part of her unique personality.  Her untimely death came a few months after the publication of The Arts of Costume and Personal Appearance in 1943. Through the generosity of her family, the rights to her book were given, ten years later, to the University of Nebraska as a memorial to her. The accumulated royalties have provided a substantial addition to the Grace Margaret Morton Scholarship Fund."

    Morton, Grace: Art of Costume and Personal Appearance c) 1943

    Harriet McJimsey

    McJimsey, Harriet: Art of Fashion in Clothing Selection c) 1959


    Robert Dorr
    Key Color System

    In 1938, Rober Dorr created the Color Key System.  He based his system on warm and cool skin tones, coordinating cool colors with Summer and Winter as Key 1 and warm colors with Spring and Autumn as Key 2.  He also discovered that our undertone and overtone can differ, one being cool and the other warm potentially.  So one could have a yellow undertone and still have a bluish look due to a cooler overtone.
    Dorr also extended Itten’s color spectrum to try to include more possible skin tones.  He consulted on color with the film and television industry.  The Color Key System used to coordinate colors to ensure they harmonize.  It has been used by Benjamin Moore paints, universities, graphic artists, fashion designers, architects and interior designers.

    Suzanne Caygill

    1942, book 1980

    Suzanne Caygill is the original American female color theorist and color analyst, who launched the field of image consulting influenced by color.  Her work took Johannes Ittens color theory further into the world of fashion consulting. The Caygill Method is carried on by students of hers and their students.  She wrote “Color: the Essence of You.”
    “Caygill identified a wide range of sub-groups within each season, and gave them descriptive names such as “Early Spring”, “Metallic Autumn”, or “Dynamic Winter”, each with its own set of special characteristics.”

    "Suzanne began her work in Personal Color Analysis in 1942  - when she had her revelation about the \"quality\" of color (Clear, Muted, Somber-Rich, Sharp) which she related to the Seasons. In my 12 years with her, she never made mention of Dorr\'s work. Her \"influence\" came from her 2 Aunt\'s interest in color (when she was a girl) and then from her experience as a milliner and designer. She may have found more on Dorr\'s and Itten\'s work later in her career, but her system for naming \"seasons\" was unique at the time."
    • Include Suzanne in 1942 as originating her form of Personal Color Analysis (which is very different from all the others because the Season Diagnosis depends on the "quality" of color (Clear, Muted, Somber-Rich, and Sharp) .. not on cool / warm and not on any "sets of color" associated with a season.
    • TV Show in 1952 -- "Living with Suzanne"

  • Suzanne Caygill, Color: The Essence of You 
  • Color: The Essence of You 

  • Lois Marlow-Scott, Ten Thousand Colors

    "Lois Marlow-Scott has been creating Personal Color Palettes for 45 years. When she started working with Suzanne Caygill* in the 1960′s, Lois did not intend to learn how to do personal colors. She feels that, because she didn’t try hard to “learn” it, the information came to her in a profound way. At Suzanne’s side, Lois began to see and feel the undefinable essence of each person, in color. When Suzanne decided to write her book, “Color, the Essence of You,” she moved into Lois’s house for a few weeks so they could immerse themselves fully. Now, at 80 years old, Lois maintains her passion and skill for creating beautiful and accurate palettes."

    Joan Songer, Personal Style Consulting


    "In the 1960’s Joan Songer took a lot of Suzanne Caygill's basic theory and made it more applicable and easy for people to understand. She found artists who were experts in color identification and had them trained to do color analysis for both women, men and children. She taught classes on how to use and apply their color and style information.  She called her business Personal Style Counselors. Joan once told me she was afraid to actually do the color analysis herself, but she did enjoy teaching the classes.  She never wrote a  book about her  theory and how it was applied. It was not because she did not want to write one, but she was too busy with the frantic demand in her business coinciding with the explosive interest in self-development characteristic of that decade. Her contribution was to create a individualized color harmony system with classes to complement the information, creating one of the most comprehensive systems that still exists today."   source

    Personal Style Counselors
    Personal Style Counselors

        Joan Songer
    Joan Songer was a student of Suzanne Caygill and founded PSC.
    John Kitchener Director & Chief Consultant · Feb 1978 to present

    Since 1964, PSC is the oldest continuously operating personal "image", style and color educational consulting firm in the US. It is the only company of it's kin...d to require its consultants to have at least a BA in Art and to undergo a PSC apprenticeship training for two years. You are NOT a limited "season" in the PSC Concept - you ARE an individual and the PSC principles empower your authenticity.



    COLOR 1, founded in 1968, is a forerunner in the evolution of the Image industry. It was the first company to train professional consultants in this unique segment of the fashion and beauty industries. As an ASSOCIATE or COLOR 1 CONSULTANT, you receive the most progressive, total-image training available. You'll also be part of an international network of Associates and Consultants with whom you can collaborate and learn new "high visibility" ideas and strategies. COLOR 1 has received major coverage in numerous national and international publications including Leslie Scott, CEO 


    Anne Sagendorph-Moon
    Beyond Business as Usual
    Dress For Your Future

    Trained in the Caygill Method


    Fran Muntz
    Director Beauty for You

    franFran brings extensive experience in Marketing, Coaching and business management skills to Beauty for You. Fran started her Career with a hobby at the age of 15 when she enrolled in a Deportment and Modelling School in Invercargill NZ. This interest inspired her to train and qualify as a Beautician and Hairdresser owning her own salon and advanced to qualify as a Beauty Therapist.
    Jeunique – Beauty for all Seasons – Products and Services


     Debra Lindquist, MA, AICI, CIP AIC CIPMA, AICI, CIP

    Lindquist Associates
    Debra Lindquist is an image veteran with many years of experience. She has been visible as a consultant, color system designer, retailer and trainer. Her premier color system, Color Profiles, Ltd.™, created in 1974, has been utilized by many consultants and is considered to be one of the finest color design systems available.

    Color Me Beautiful


    Carole Jackson – The trailblazer of colour consultation
    Carole Jackson made colour consultation accessible to the public. She founded the international corporation “Color me Beautiful” in 1974 and wrote a book with the same title as well as a book titled “Make-up with Color me Beautiful”.

    Color Me Beautiful c) 1980

    by Carole Jackson 
    Color Me Beautiful Europe Image Consultants

    Color Me Beautiful Looking Your Best

    • includes small color swatches for each of the 12 seasons that are pretty accurate. (Problems with precise color printing make this very difficult to find in books.) Mary Spillane and Christine Sherlock, Color Me Beautiful's Looking Your Best "Spillane and Sherlock introduced an expanded classification system, in which the four "seasonal" palettes were expanded to twelve.[33] Veronique Henderson and Pat Henshaw Henderson and Henshaw combine the seasonal analysis method with a classification system based on contrasts in an individual's coloring, returning to the previous color study from doris Pooser in the early 1990s." wikipedia

     Basics of the 4 Color Seasons

    Color Me A Season

      Kentner insisted that skin color was the key to determining the base color that all the others must rest on, not hair or eye color.  She believed that skin color alone would determine whether one was a Summer, a Winter, a Spring, or an Autumn. This can cause confusion, because the color of the hair may be the first thing that strikes the observer's eye (particularly if the hair color is dramatic).  Okay, so skin tone is the determinant for one’s primary palette of colors.  Then, if the hair color itself dictates a different season, this would become the secondary palette of colors.
       Seasonal Skin Tone Color Matching

      Color Me a Season: How to Find and Use Your... 
      by Bernice Kentner 

      Color Me A Season Since 1979, four True Seasons, and 3 blends each.  Beautiful names, but little visuals on the site.


      Deborah Chase, The Medically Based No Nonsense Beauty Book 

      The Medically Based No-Nonsense Beauty Book 

      "Chase explored the impact of skin pigments on coloration. She noted that there are three primary pigments that give the skin its color: "Melanin, which gives the skin its brown tones; carotene, which imparts the yellow skin tones; and hemoglobin, the red pigment in the blood, which gives the skin its pink and red hues....The three pigments--melanin, carotene, and hemoglobin join one another to produce our flesh tones." wikipedia


    "In the 1980's a leading Image Consultant, Carolyn Miller, (House of Color) recognised that, while easy to understand, four seasons on their own was too rigid, inflexible and not sufficient to provide each client with an individual colour analysis that was both representative of their best colours and usable."

    1980 Segerstrom

    Jane Segerstrom
    There is another out of print set of books that also has a four type system:
    Jane Segerstrom's Look Like Yourself and Lo...  c) 1980
    Style Strategy: Winning the Appearance Game  c) 1988

    Carla Mathis

    In 1981 Carla Mathis founded ColorStyle, now the Body Beautiful Institute, training Personal Stylists throughout the world to offer the highest level of individualized service in the industry. In 2005 Carla's son Eric joined the company as CEO to help take her life-changing discoveries to a broader audience. Together this dynamic mother-son duo developed the Body Signature System and the Stylist Network--now used by Personal Stylists and Image Consultants worldwide. Thousands of people have been trained by Carla Mathis and her Institute--many have gone on to become top Image Consultants. Used as a textbook at leading design schools, Carla's book The Triumph of Individual Style defined the science and language that Image Consultants use today. Body Beautiful is based in Los Angeles, California. 


    Pat Scott Vincent
    Founder of Colour Flair
    Colourflair opened its doors in August 1984, working from a small studio in Brighton town centre.   For Pat Scott Vincent, it was the culmination of a dream she had harboured since leaving her career in commerce and the media to bring up a family.
    When Pat learned about personal colour analysis in 1982, she immediately recognised that it resolved many of the problems she had encountered with colour for cosmetics and clothes over the years.

    1983 Donner

    Color for Body & Soul: Discover Yourself & Your Temperament Through Color

    Color for Body & Soul: Discover Yourself and Your Temperament Through Color
    by Naomi E. Donner

    Joan Callaway
    (Joan Callaway's palette she shared here at Beauty Valued).

    The Color Connection: From a Retailer's Perspective
    By Joan S. Callaway

    "A graphic and photographic representation of the Seasonal Color Harmony theory as it relates to the fashion industry and is being taught by color consultants around the world. This book is an essential reference for designers, buyers, sales associates, as well as consumers who wish to expand their knowledge and refine their style with or without having had their colors painted or draped. ... Much of the book is a composite of theories as that I have learned through reading, seminars and from having my colors done eight times, including by Suzanne Caygill, author of Color, The Essence of You. "


    Joanne Nicholson and Judy Lewis-Crum, Color Wonderful 

    "Another method of analysis was developed by color consultants Joanne Nicholson and Judy Lewis-Crum, whose 1986 book Color Wonderful [34] explains their classification system, which is based on the amount of contrast in an individual's coloring." wikipedia
    Color Wonderful 

    David Kibbe's Metamorphosis 
    Group II/Dusty/Summer
    Group IV/Contrast/Winter

    Jennifer Robin
    author of

    Karen Brunger is Founder and President of the International Image Institute and international Past-President of the Association of Image Consultants International (AICI). She is a recipient of the international Award of Excellence and was Who’s Who Canadian of the Year for 2009. Karen served as AICI’s international VP Education for four years, where she was responsible for the standards of image training worldwide. She is also a Past-President of the Toronto chapter of AICI.

    Rochele Hirsch
    Graduate of Suzanne Caygill's Academy of Color
    "For a lifetime tool that supports your authentic style, I hand-paint a palette of colors, using acrylic paints, to match and harmonize with your natural coloration."  
     Caygill Method

    Taylor B. Sinclaire
    IlluminEssensce® is based on The Science of Human Harmony™, a science discovered by IlluminEssensce founder, Taylore B Sinclaire over 20 years ago.


    Angela Wright, FRSA
    Color Psychology
    "She studied psychoanalytical psychotherapy at Queen Mary's Hospital, Roehampton, England, before studying the dynamics of colour in Carmel, California, USA, and identified links between patterns of colour and patterns of human behaviour. She formulated a clear hypothesis, which became the basis of the Colour Affects System, an academically sound and demonstrably effective system that crossed cultural boundaries and, for the first time, enabled colour psychology to be applied objectively, rationally and with remarkable accuracy."
    The Beginner's Guide to Colour Psychology
    by Angela Wright, FRSA c) 1995
    Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts  
    correction: NOT a student of Caygill


    Blair Massey 
    Certified Image Consultant & Style Coach
    Always Looking Your Best 
    Color Me Beautiful 1995
    Color Alliance and Signia 2015


    Who Do You Think You Are Anyway? 
    by Robert A. Rohm
    DISC Personality Test

    What does he have to do with color?

    See correlations with DYT

    Darin Wright of Elea Blake

    12 Tone Pictures (examples) - Reveal Consultancy 
    Maytee Garza  Closed her business
    This page shows women draped and categorized in the 12 Tones/Seasons along with minipalettes. Maytee Garza, Former Sci\Art Certified Trainer and Analyst c) 1999


    ~2001 or before
    Understanding Your Color: A Guide to Personal Color Analysis
    Kathryn Kalisz Donovan founder of 12 Tone sytem
    student of Caygill


    Alan Flusser, Dressing the Man 

    Dressing the Man: Mastering the Art of Perm... 

    Kerry Stitch, certified SciArt™ color analyst
    Indigo Tones

    Color My Closet: Lauren Battistini 
    Haute couture feeling from this analyst.  Mainly advertising her constulting services. 

    Jennifer Butler
    student of Caygill


    Ten Thousand Colors

    "Cathy Williams had her first palette done by Suzanne Caygill in 1979. Since then, she attended the Academy of Art in San Francisco. Cathy has known Lois for more than 30 years and, in the past years, has been working at her side creating palettes. Cathy combines her life-long love of color with a deep connection with Nature. Her intuitive abilities support an accurate and illuminated Color Reading. Cathy’s special skills in shopping and closet alignment help clients further integrate their colors into their lives."

    Christine Scaman, Certified Sci/Art Color Analyst
    Return to Your Natural Colors

    Anna Villaruel

    Donna Cognac
    The Color Advisor
    Essential Colors

    "The principles of repeating one's contrast level as well as the color temperatures and intensities that compliment their personal coloring are combined in a system developed by Donna Cognac. It relates 16 different color harmonies to the energy of nature's five elements: Water, Wood, Fire, Earth, and Metal. Palettes are various combinations of these 5 elemental energies. For example any palette with a very bright appearance or a very warm overall color temperature is a Fire palette to one degree or another and is consistent with the essence of the wearer." Wikipedia

    Beauty for All Seasons: Color Alliance

    Color Alliance ® (CA) Also known as Beauty For All Seasons - (which no longer exists, actually now it is used in conjunction with Color Me Beautiful/Color Me Direct). How to find an analyst that does this system:

    It is one of the modern and attractive color analysis methods addressed both at men and women. It was developed by Norma Virgin, an American mathematician, color theory expert, founder of “Beauty For All Seasons, Inc.”. The method consists in a more precise color measurement that eliminates the margin of error, normally related to an individual analysis by the advising analyst. The CA method defines also one’s personal color palette, and this theory led to a major breakthrough in color analysis.

    Carol Tuttle
    Dressing Your Truth c) 2010

    Lora Alexander, certified Image Consultant
    Esthiology license in 1998 from the Aveda Institute in Minneapolis
    student of Caygill in New York

    Wendy J. Smith
    All Your Winning Colors

    hen you combine genealogy and seasonal color analysis, it's like a chocolate-vanilla swirl cone for me! My two favorite topics!  And Wendy J. Smith has done it in her two books, "All Your Winning Colors" and "Love Me, Love My Colors."


    Jane Leu Rekas, LCSW, CHt 
    Certified in Color Me A Season
    Color Profiles individualized fans


    Blair Massey 
    Certified Image Consultant & Style Coach
    Always Looking Your Best 
    Color Me Beautiful 1995
    Color Alliance and Signia 2015

    Beauty Valued
    Kathy Pfeiffer
    Student of Debra Lindquist

    RoseAnn Woolpert

    Personal Color Palettes
    Your Personal Colors Color Palette is a custom selection of colors, fabrics and textures that match or complement your skin, hair and eyes. Additionally, there are colors, patterns and metals that harmonize with these personal colors and express your uniqueness. Each color on your palette creates a different impression upon you and those around you, making you appear more formal or relaxed and approachable, more romantic, more exciting, more credible, more quiet and calm, or more “pulled together”. When created just for you, not pre-packaged, this is a unique array of colors, textures and patterns. Your Personal Colors Color Palette, drawn from a collection of over 5,000 different fabric swatches, is a one of a kind guide to color in your life.

    Jeanine Byers Hoag  
    Pretty Your World Color Analyst and Color Alliance representative

    Dressing My Truth
    student of Lora Alexander

    Yelena Starikova, Image Consultant, Color Analysist and Fashion Blogger.

    Irenee Riter on Color

    Color With Style

    Donna Fujii 
    • Color With Style She proposes an extensive system of color categorization for Asian, African-American and Latina women. This system hasn't yet caught on, but I think it deserves more attention. One of my goals for the near future is to attempt to reconcile Fujii's system with 12 season analysis.   Color With Style 
    For information about advertising in the Image Resource Directory, please contact AICI at

    Who and what am I missing? 


    Anonymous said...

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    Unknown said...

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    Unknown said...

    Please can you correct your info on Joan Callaway. Her palette was not done by me, Kathy Pfeiffer. It was the palette she used most and showed it to me when I met her. Thank you.